Probing the Effect of Force on HIV-1 Receptor CD4
Cell-surface proteins are central for the interaction of cells with their surroundings and are also associated with numerous diseases. These molecules are exposed to mechanical forces, but the exact relation between force and the functions and pathologies associated with cell-surface proteins is unclear. An important cell-surface protein is CD4, the primary receptor of HIV-1. Here we show that mechanical force activates conformational and chemical changes on CD4 that may be important during viral attachment. We have used single-molecule force spectroscopy and analysis on HIV-1 infectivity to demonstrate that the mechanical extension of CD4 occurs in a time-dependent manner and correlates with HIV-1 infectivity. We show that Ibalizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks HIV-1, prevents the mechanical extension of CD4 domains 1 and 2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that thiol/disulfide exchange in CD4 requires force for exposure of cryptic disulfide bonds. This mechanical perspective provides unprecedented information that can change our understanding on how viruses interact with their hosts.